45 Most Valuable Key Performance Indicators for Service Company

45 Most Valuable Key Performance Indicators for Service Company

Bojan Radojičić
May 1, 2023

Management guru Dr. Peter Drucker said:

“If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it.” 

KPIs are the best way to measure the results of the managerial decision within your professional service firm. The list of KPIs we present is most suitable for service firms such as accounting and financial advisory firms, law firms, marketing agencies, creative industry firms, architecture, and engineering firms, consulting firms, human resources, and recruitment firms.
You need to be careful and attentive when it comes to the KPIs you’ll use to track your business. It is recommended to choose the a maximum of 7 to 10 KPIs you will use on the company level or within a specific sector. If you choose any more you can cause the ‘’analysis paralysis’’ syndrome.

The List of the Best Key Performance Indicators for Professional Service Firms

1. Time Utilization

A service company sells the work hours of its billable staff. As a result managing employees’ time is crucial. Time utilization is a perfect indicator to measure the productivity of your employees. Time utilization shows a share of time work on client-related projects (billable hours) in total paid time. A perfect way to improve time utilization is to increase billable hours in projects.

This metric gauges the efficiency of time employed across various activities. Thus, it directly impacts an organization’s overall productivity and success. Here is how:

  • Operational Efficiency – Monitoring time utilization helps businesses assess how effectively employees and teams are using their time to complete tasks and projects. This insight is invaluable for identifying bottlenecks, streamlining processes, and optimizing workflows.
  • Resource Management – Time is a finite resource, and its allocation can greatly influence project outcomes. Effective time utilization ensures that employees are working on tasks aligned with their skills and expertise. This, then, maximizes resource allocation and prevents unnecessary time wastage.
  • Project Timelines – Accurate time tracking aids in setting realistic project timelines and meeting deadlines consistently. When time is managed efficiently, businesses can ensure that projects progress smoothly and deliver them to clients on time, fostering trust and reliability.
  • Employee Productivity and Well-being – Balanced time utilization contributes to employee satisfaction and well-being. When employees can manage their time effectively, they experience reduced stress and improved work-life balance. This, in turn, enhances productivity and job satisfaction.
  • Customer-Centric Approach – For businesses aiming to deliver value to their customers, efficient time utilization plays a huge role. When teams use their time wisely, they can focus on understanding customer needs, gathering feedback, and tailoring products and services to meet those needs.

time utilization rate

The above formula is related to gross time utilization. If you want to calculate net time utilization, you can use total hours (including days off) instead of work hours.

In order to have full control over overtime utilization, the companies use some time tracking tools but you need to match time tracking features with your business type.

This is our analysis of time tracking products depending on the industry you are operating in: legal, accounting, consulting, architecture, healthcare, construction, software development, marketing and creative industry and human resources industry.

2. Billable Rate

Billable Rate is the hourly rate at which the client is billed for the work performed by your employees. When you agree on a fixed fee with your client it is very important to calculate the actual billable hourly rate by dividing the total fee by hours spent on the project. Then you can check how much the actual billable rate differs from the planned billable rate. In order to optimize billable rates, companies need to understand the essential rules about billing hourly rate management.

3. Employee Billing Rate

Employee Billing Rate is an hourly rate billed to the client for a specific employee. By comparing actual billable rates per employee you can realize who are your top-performing employees.

Employee Billing Rate

4. Project Billing Rate

Project Billable Rate is an hourly rate billed for a specific project.

The calculation of a project billing rate can involve multiple components:

  • Labor Costs –This includes the wages or salaries of the employees or contractors working on the project. The rate might differ based on the skill level and role of each team member.
  • Overhead Costs – Overhead costs encompass various indirect expenses that are not directly tied to a specific project but contribute to the overall operation of the business. Examples include rent, utilities, administrative costs, and office supplies.
  • Materials and Resources – If the project requires specific materials, tools, equipment, or software licenses, the cost of these items can be factored into the billing rate.
  • Profit Margin – The billing rate should also include a profit margin that allows the business to generate income beyond covering costs.
  • Market Rates – Industry standards and market conditions play a role in determining the billing rate. The rate should be competitive within the industry while reflecting the value and quality of the services provided.
  • Client Requirements – Depending on the client’s budget and expectations, the billing rate might need to be adjusted to align with their needs and affordability.

Project Billing Rate

This billing rate is crucial for calculating the profit of each project.

5. Gross Margin Rate

Gross margin is calculated as the difference in revenues from sales and direct cost of services performed (COSP). Such costs usually include the cost of labor and subcontractors and should be allocated properly. This is the most direct indicator of profitability i.e. top-level indicator in the income statement that is shown at the top of the profit and loss account. The Gross marring rate should be compared with historical gross marring rates. In the case your growth marring rate is increasing during a time, that means your sales are increasing more than salaries.

Gross Margin Rate

6. Commercial Margin Rate

The commercial margin rate is the next level of profitability indication.  Commercial margin is calculated as the difference in revenues from sales and total commercial costs such as marketing, leasing, education, sales costs, etc.

Commercial Margin Rate

7. EBITDA Rate

EBITDA (Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation, and amortization) is one of the most comprehensive measures of a company’s financial performance.

This is one type of net marginal profit rate. It is usually used for company valuation as an approximation of operating cash flow.

EBITDA Rate shows how much $ your company earns to one $ of revenue.


8. Net Profit Margin

The net profit rate is the bottom-level profitability indicator. It measures how much net profit is generated as a percentage of revenue.

The net profit margin provides valuable insights into a company’s financial health and efficiency. Here’s what the margin percentages generally indicate:

A higher net profit margin indicates that a larger percentage of each dollar of revenue is retained as profit. This suggests that the business is effectively managing its costs and generating healthy profits.

In contrast, a lower net profit margin suggests that a smaller percentage of revenue is converted into profit. This might indicate higher operating costs, lower sales prices, or other factors affecting profitability.

The interpretation of the Net Profit Margin should also consider the industry and market context. Some industries naturally have higher operating costs, which can influence the margin rate.

Net result rate

9. Contribution to Growth

If your business is growing you need to know the structure of such growth. For example, your actual revenues are  500k USD while last year’s revenues were 400k USD, so total growth is 100k USD. Let’s assume you have four different service lines, the crucial indicator of each service line’s performance is how much each service line contributes to the growth.

Contribution to Growth

10. Cost of Salaries Share

This is a typical structure analysis ratio. Such ratio numbers allow you to control a share of specific costs in the total budget (revenues)

Salaries cost share is an important KPI for the professional service industry metrics and indicates how much $ you need to spend on salaries in order to achieve one $ of sales. Besides these KPIs, a very important metric is also the hourly cost rate.

🔎 Fun Fact: Some companies have implemented innovative approaches to reward their employees and share the benefits of their success. One unique example is when a company decides to allocate a portion of its profits directly to its employees in the form of additional bonuses or dividends.
This approach, sometimes called a “salary cost share program,” allows employees to directly benefit from the company’s financial performance beyond their regular salaries. This practice can enhance employee morale, motivation, and engagement. This is due to the direct connection between their efforts and the company’s financial well-being.

Cost of Salaries Share

11. Return of Investment (ROI)

Return of Investment indicates how much $ you earn on one $ of investment. Return is usually equal to net profit or cash generated while investment is an aggregate amount of business assets such as property, equipment, cash, receivables, inventories, etc.

Key points about ROI:

  • Relative Comparison – ROI allows for easy comparison between different investments or projects. It helps investors and businesses decide where to allocate resources by evaluating which option provides the highest return relative to the initial investment.
  • Time Consideration – ROI doesn’t account for the time period over which an investment generates returns. It’s a snapshot of profitability at a specific point in time and doesn’t consider the time value of money.
  • Risk Assessment – ROI doesn’t account for risk. An investment with a higher ROI might involve higher risk. Therefore, it’s essential to consider risk factors alongside ROI.
  • Different Interpretations – Depending on the context, the term “return” might refer to different types of gains, such as net profit, revenue, or savings. It’s important to define what is considered a return for accurate calculation.

Return of Investment (ROI)

12. Return of Equity (ROE)

Equity represents the net assets of the company. That is the difference between total assets and liabilities (such as loans, unpaid bills, etc.).  Return on Equity shows how efficient your company is.

Return of Equity (ROE)

13.  Revenue (Profit) per FTE

Revenue per FTE (Full Time Equivalents) shows how much income you billed to the clients per one employee on average. Before calculating this KPI you need to calculate your full-time equivalent (FTE).

Revenue (Profit) per FTE

14. Project Efficiency

Project efficiency is an indicator of project overrun. It is an indicator are you on budget or not. Besides the costs, you can also compare the budgeted and actual time spent on the project, or budgeted revenues and actual revenues.

Project Efficiency

For better project efficiency management it is very important to track hours and expenses per projects.

Besides project efficiency, you can calculate project profitability as well.

When you calculate a specific KPI that is just beginning. You need to make relevant decisions based on the results. But in order to do this, you need to compare your actual KPIs with:

Monitoring of these KPIs is not possible without a work-hours tracking solution. Discover what’s possible with Time Analytics.

15. Working Capital

Working capital is the metric that shows the business’s available operating liquidity. You can use this knowledge to budget and fund daily operations.

Key points about working capital:

  • Positive vs. Negative Working Capital – A positive working capital indicates that a company has enough current assets to cover its current liabilities. This is generally a sign of financial health. On the other hand, a negative working capital suggests that a company’s current liabilities exceed its current assets, which might indicate potential liquidity issues.
  • Optimal Working Capital – The ideal level of working capital varies by industry and business type. Some industries naturally have higher working capital needs due to longer inventory turnover cycles or delayed receivables.
  • Management and Efficiency – Effective working capital management involves optimizing the balance between current assets and liabilities. Too much working capital might indicate inefficient use of resources, while too little could lead to liquidity problems.
  • Seasonal Variations – Businesses with seasonal fluctuations might experience variations in their working capital needs. They might need to secure financing during low seasons to ensure they can meet their obligations.
  • Investment and Expansion – Positive working capital is often required to fund growth initiatives, invest in new projects, or take advantage of business opportunities.

Working Capital

16. Current Ratio

This indicator shows the short-term liquidity of a company. In other words, it is calculated as the ratio of the current assets and liabilities. Current assets include cash, accounts receivable, and inventory. In other words, they are the assets you would be able to convert into cash within the following year. In a similar vein, current liabilities are due within a year, including payable accounts.

In general, your current ratio being below one signifies the danger of not being able to cover its short-term liabilities with the convertible assets it possesses at the moment. Here is the current ratio formula:

Current Ratio

17. Gross Burn Rate

This indicator shows how much available cash is used up for covering operating expenses. Loss-generating startups are usually the companies that use this KPI. The height of burn rate is inversely proportional to the time the company will take to spend its cash. In other words, the higher the gross burn rate, the faster you’re going to run out of money. The way to prevent this from happening is by receiving more means or attracting new funding. Investors usually check this KPI while they’re in the process of deciding whether to fund a project or not. This is the formula for gross burn rate:

Gross Burn Rate

🔎 Fun fact: The term “burn rate” originally has its roots in rocketry and space exploration. It was used to describe the rate at which a rocket’s fuel was consumed (or “burned”) during its flight. This concept was later adopted and adapted by the startup and business world to describe the rate at which a company is spending its capital or cash reserves.So, when you’re talking about a company’s “gross burn rate,” you’re borrowing a term from the world of rocket science to describe how fast the company is spending its financial resources.

18. Debt-to-Equity Ratio

This KPI represents the ratio that indicates the amount of equity and debt a company uses to finance itself. It shows the capacity of shareholder equity to cover debt in case of a downturn. In other words, it is a measurement of the company’s solvency. The formula for debt to equality ratio goes as follows:

Debt-to-Equity Ratio

19. Days Inventory Outstanding

Days inventory outstanding (DIO) is a ratio for working capital management. It gauges the number of days that a company usually holds its inventory before converting it into sales. Companies want their DIO to be as low as possible, as that means their stock will remain up to date. Additionally, it also indicates that cash isn’t trapped in inventory for a long time.

Key points about Days Inventory Outstanding:

  • Efficiency Indicator – A lower DIO indicates that a company is efficiently managing its inventory, selling products quickly, and minimizing the time that inventory remains in stock.
  • Industry Variability – Different industries have different optimal DIO benchmarks due to variations in production cycles, demand patterns, and product types. Hence, comparing DIO values should consider the industry context.
  • Cash Flow and Holding Costs – Lower DIO levels can free up cash flow by reducing tied-up capital in inventory. Additionally, a longer DIO might result in higher holding costs (storage, insurance, etc.).
  • Inventory Management – DIO is a useful tool for evaluating inventory management practices. High DIO might suggest overstocking or slow-moving items, while low DIO might indicate stockouts or potential missed sales.
  • Demand and Supply – DIO can be influenced by shifts in customer demand, changes in production efficiency, or disruptions in the supply chain.

You can calculate Days Inventory Outstanding through this formula:

Days Inventory Outstanding

20. Days Sales Outstanding (DSO)

This KPI measures the number of days a company takes to collect payment for its sales. Businesses usually calculate their day’s sales outstanding (or DSO for short) per month, quarter, or year.

You should use the following formula to determine the average number of days your company’s accounts receivables take to realize as cash:

Days Sales Outstanding (DSO)

21. Days Payable Outstanding (DPO)

This metric converts AP turnover into time. In other words, you can find out how quickly a company pays for purchases it obtained on vendor credit terms. The lower DPO, the faster the company is paying.

This is how you can calculate days payable outstanding:

🔎 Fun fact: DPO is often used as a component in financial analysis. It is considered a measure of a company’s ability to manage its accounts payable efficiently. However, it’s interesting to note that some companies intentionally delay payments to suppliers as part of their financial strategy. This practice is sometimes referred to as “dynamic discounting”. It involves negotiating longer payment terms with suppliers in exchange for the possibility of receiving early payment discounts. In this scenario, a company may extend its DPO to take advantage of longer payment periods without negatively affecting supplier relationships. This strategy can result in improved cash flow for the company while also allowing suppliers to maintain consistent business. It’s a unique example of how businesses can influence financial metrics like DPO through strategic decisions and negotiations.

Days Payable Outstanding (DPO)

22. Cash Conversion Cycle

This is an indicator that shows the time a company needs to turn a dollar it invests in inventory into cash it will get from its customers. The KPI accounts both for the time needed to sell the inventory and the time needed to collect the payment after the sale. Similar to the previous KPIs, it is presented as a number of days.
Here is how you can calculate the cash conversion cycle:

Cash Conversion Cycle

23. Sales Growth Rate

This KPI presents the change in net sales over time. The sales growth rate is represented as a percentage, and many companies consider it their most important revenue. It allows companies to compare their sales from the same period of the previous year or get an insight into their development from one quarter to the next.

A positive sales growth rate proves growth in sales. On the other hand, if this value is negative the sales are going down. This is how you can determine the sales growth rate of your business:

Sales Growth Rate

24. Selling, General, and Administrative (SG&A) Ratio

This KPI shows the percentage of the sales revenue necessary to cover the selling, general, and administrative expenses. The SG&A expenses include a plethora of operational costs. These can be advertising and marketing, administrative staff salaries, rent, utilities, etc. Companies aim to spend less money on these costs. That is, they want the SG&A ratio to be as low as possible. This is how you can calculate this indicator:

Key points about the SG&A Ratio:

  • Efficiency Indicator – A lower SG&A Ratio typically indicates that a company is managing its operational expenses efficiently and dedicating a smaller portion of its revenue to non-production-related costs.
  • Analyzing Trends – Tracking changes in the SG&A Ratio over time can provide insights into a company’s cost management strategies and operational efficiency improvements.
  • Budgeting and Planning – The SG&A Ratio is a valuable tool for budgeting and financial planning. It helps companies allocate resources more effectively and identify areas for cost reduction.
  • Investor Perception – Investors and analysts often use the SG&A Ratio to assess a company’s ability to control expenses and generate profits from its core operations.
  • Impact on Profitability – While controlling SG&A expenses is important, it’s also crucial to strike a balance between cost management and investing in activities that contribute to revenue growth.

Selling, General, and Administrative (SG&A) Ratio

25. Interest Coverage

Similar to the debt to equity ratio, interest coverage is a solvency KPI. It assesses whether a company is capable of meeting interest payments like bonds and loans. It does this by indicating the ratio of operating profit and interest expense. You want this ratio to be high, as it proves your business will be able to pay off its debts without problems.
This is how you calculate the interest coverage:

Interest Coverage

26. Operating Cash Flow (OCF)

OCF is a metric that represents the total amount of money a company generates through its daily business operations. This KPI indicates whether a business can keep its cash flow high enough to grow. If the OCF is not doing well, you will probably need to get some financing from another source to handle your expenses.
You can calculate the operating cash flow by adjusting your net income for elements like changes in inventory, changes to accounts receivable, and depreciation. If you want to know whether your company is producing enough capital for its accounts to remain positive.

Digital marketing KPIs and metrics

27. Cost-Per-Click (CPC)

There are many KPIs that measure the operational performance of your marketing campaigns. CPC represents the effectiveness of an online campaign. You can also use it to compare the performance of different campaigns and marketing channels.

🔎 Fun fact: The world’s first online banner ad, which launched the concept of online advertising as we know it today, had a click-through rate (CTR) of about 44%. The ad was part of a campaign by AT&T and was displayed on the website HotWired (now known as Wired.com) in 1994. The ad featured the tagline “Have you ever clicked your mouse right here? You will.” and invited users to click on the banner. This high click-through rate demonstrated the novelty of online advertising at the time and the curiosity it sparked among internet users. It’s fascinating to think about how far online advertising has come since then, with CPC becoming a fundamental metric in digital marketing. Nowadays, it helps advertisers measure the effectiveness of their campaigns and target their audiences more precisely.

28. New leads/prospects per month

Leads are members of your target audience that start interacting with your website – i.e. creating an account or signing up for a free trial. This KPI shows the number of new leads you’ve gained in the past month. Most businesses that rely on online marketing and sales rely on this KPI, as it directly shows the growth or lack thereof of a website.

29. Qualified leads per month

A marketing campaign can’t work well if it isn’t optimized for its target audience. This, first and foremost, means showing the ads to individuals interested in purchasing your product or service. Qualified leads per month is a KPI that shows whether your online ads are targeting your intended audience or simply generating traffic from internet users who aren’t interested in becoming paying customers. The second case is extremely unproductive, as you are paying for ads to be shown to users who aren’t going to make you a profit.

30. Cost-per-lead generated

Acquiring a new prospect isn’t free. The cost-per-lead (CPL) includes your marketing campaign efforts – creation, design, campaigning, etc. This indicator represents the money needed to get a new prospect. If you combine this KPI with cost-per-conversion, you will be able to evaluate the profitability of different marketing activities.

31. Monthly website traffic

Website traffic can be an amazing asset in assessing how your business is doing. This is especially important for online stores and independent vendors. Tracking the number of visits through different periods (both compared to the same period in the previous year and the previous months) is a great way to keep track of your business’s development. However, it isn’t the only way to track traffic. You can monitor different indicators, such as

  • Landing pages
  • Homepage
  • Pricing pages
  • Blog/resources

Then you can utilize this knowledge to figure out the strongest parts of your website. That is, find the pages with the highest conversion rate. Then you can compare them and find the reason for their success, and apply the same techniques to the other pages on your site.

32. Visits per channel

Not every marketing channel works for every business. Simply put – some channels, (i.e. google ads, banners, carousel ads, different advertising sites) will do better than others. You should analyze the sources of your inbound traffic and then focus on the marketing channels that bring you the highest profit. This is also a great way to see how a new campaign is doing.

🔎 Fun fact: In the early days of the internet, when web analytics was just beginning to take shape, the concept of tracking website visits and their sources was new and intriguing. One of the first popular web analytics tools, “Webtrends,” emerged in the mid-1990s. It allowed website owners to track visitor data, including the websites or channels that referred visitors to their sites. Imagine the excitement of website owners being able to see which websites or platforms were sending traffic their way! This early form of tracking visits per channel laid the foundation for modern digital marketing and the sophisticated analytics we have today. It’s a reminder of how far we’ve come in understanding online user behavior and the impact of different channels on website traffic.

33. Average time on page

This KPI is extremely important when it comes to SEO. It is important to get your website visitors to stay on your site as long as possible. This is a great way for Google and other search engines to notice your site and rank it higher among the results. Relevance and high-quality content are the best ways to increase the average time on a page. This KPI is also directly proportional to the conversion rate. In other words, the higher it is the more likely it will be for your visitors to become leads.

34. Click-through rate (CTR) on web pages

You can monitor your website’s marketing tactics and the quality of your copy and calls-to-action through the click-through rate. This KPI shows how many times your visitors have seen your ads (impressions) and decided to click on them to find out more (visits).

Click-through rate (CTR) on web pages

35. Google PageRank

Google is and has been the world’s leading search engine for quite a while. To put it differently – most people will turn to google if they are looking for a specific product or service. Google calculates the PageRank through a great number of algorithms that rank different websites by relevance and importance. Some of PageRank’s most important decisions are made due to the amount and quality of inbound links to a specific page.

36. Bounce Rate

Bounce rate is another important KPI when it comes to digital marketing. It represents the percentage of visitors who click on a ling and immediately leave it (also known as ‘’bouncing’’, hence the name). If you want your website to do well, you will need your bounce rate to be as low as possible, as it affects your site’s ranking. You can do that by making sure the site is responsive and loads quickly. Another method is being truthful about the contents of your pages and curating high-quality content. In other words – don’t clickbait and show expertise in your field.

🔎 Fun fact: The term “bounce rate” actually draws its origins from the world of pinball. In the game, a “bounce” occurs when the ball hits a bumper or obstacle and quickly rebounds in a different direction. Similarly, in the context of web analytics, a “bounce” happens when a visitor arrives on a webpage and then leaves without interacting further or navigating to any other page on the same site. So, when you’re talking about the “bounce rate” of a website, you’re using a term inspired by the bouncy behavior of pinball balls in an arcade game. It’s a playful connection between the physical world and the digital realm, reminding us that even complex digital metrics have origins in everyday experiences.

SAAS KPIs and metrics

37. Conversion Rate to Customer

This metric represents the percentage of webpage leads who decide to convert. Usually, conversion means purchasing a product or service. In other words, this KPI represents the ratio of leads that decide to become paying customers.

Conversion Rate to Customer = New paid customers / qualified leads (or sign-ups) /

38. Average Revenue Per Account (ARPA)

This KPI is also known as average revenue per user/unit (ARPU). It represents the measure of the revenue generated per user account. It is usually calculated per month, since the biggest part of businesses that operate on a subscription model charge monthly fees.

Average Revenue Per Account (ARPA)

39. Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)

Customer acquisition cost (CAC) represents the amount of money you need to acquire a new customer. It also shows the value said customer brought to your company.

40. Customer Churn

Running a business isn’t all about acquiring new customers. Another important element of any business is to remain relevant to your current client base. Customer churn rate is a metric that shows how many customers you have lost during a specific period.

This KPI is crucial for determining customer retention and tracking the general flow of your business in real-time. You can also use it to compare to your previous results, whether from previous years or months.

41. Revenue Churn

Customer churn rate isn’t enough to determine how specific customers impact your business. That is why you also need to track revenue churn rates at the same time. This is especially important for businesses where the subscription depends on the number of users or seats a specific customer is paying for. If this is the case, the customer churn rate can be very different from the revenue churn rate, as some customers bring in more profit to the company than others.

Operational Key Performance Indicators and Metrics

No company can stay afloat without its employees. They and their time are the biggest leverage of any business. Teams work on turning an employer’s vision into reality. Understanding the ways your employees function, the dynamics of their teams, and the way they view your company. That is why we have compiled a list of KPIs operations managers can use.

billable hours for accountants

42. Absenteeism Rate

This is an operations metric that indicates the employees who either call in sick often or miss their shifts. The primary goal of the absenteeism rate isn’t to punish or fire problematic employees. Instead, you should try to get them to engage with their work first. There are many ways to motivate your staff and get them to become more engaged with their work. if you use them rather than scaring and punishing the employee in question, they are more likely to remain at your company, participate in the office culture, and work harder. In any case, paid time off tracking is essential to get insight into this metric.

🔎 Fun fact: In some workplaces, companies have found creative ways to reduce absenteeism and promote a positive work environment. One fun and unique approach was implemented by a company that introduced a “Bring Your Pet to Work” day to boost employee morale and reduce absenteeism. The idea was that allowing employees to bring their pets to work could create a more relaxed and enjoyable atmosphere, leading to increased job satisfaction and a decrease in absenteeism. This practice has been shown to reduce stress and create a sense of camaraderie among employees. It’s a delightful example of how unconventional strategies can address workplace issues in a fun and engaging way.

43. Overtime Hours

Overtime can signify multiple situations in your company. It can be a positive occurrence in companies that pay more for the extra hours. On the other hand, many businesses choose not to do it, so the employees end up working more for the same amount of money.

It is also important to make one distinction. Some employees have to do a lot of overtime due to an increased task volume or difficulty or having to do their coworkers’ part of work. In contrast, there are also employees who commit time theft and slack off, who have to make up for their lost time. In case you need more insight into overtime download our overtime calculator.

44. Employee Satisfaction

It has been proven again and again that satisfied employees bring more to the table when it comes to work and commitment. You need to understand that it is impossible to make everyone happy at all times, as this work model would be unsustainable. Thus, you should make sure to open the conversation about employee satisfaction. You can do this through surveys and be prepared to listen to suggestions on business process improvement. If HR and the management don’t have this information, they won’t be able to make the improvements that can propel your business forward.

45. Employee Turnover Rate

There isn’t a universal optimal turnover rate. Some industries, or even companies in the same industry, need to replace their employees more frequently. However, most businesses are looking to reduce the number of employees leaving their company. It is also important to understand the reason behind the turnover. Simply put – the more workers leave your company, the more often you will have to find replacements. This means investing time and resources in finding and training new employees. That is why you will need to analyze employee satisfaction carefully and continuously invest in making the workplace more employee-friendly.


Common questions about KPIs revolve around their definition, selection, measurement, and practical application. Here are some of the most frequently asked questions:

How Do You Select the Right KPIs?

Selecting the right key performance indicators is a crucial step in effectively measuring and managing performance. Here’s a step-by-step process to help you choose the most relevant KPIs for your specific goals and business:

  • Define Your Objectives – Start by clearly defining your business objectives or goals. What do you want to achieve? Whether it’s increasing sales, improving customer satisfaction, or enhancing operational efficiency, your objectives will guide your KPI selection.
  • Identify Key Areas – Break down your objectives into key areas or departments that contribute to those goals. For example, if your goal is to improve customer satisfaction, relevant areas might include customer service, product quality, and delivery speed.
  • Understand the Process – Deeply understand the processes within each key area. This involves mapping out how things work, from start to finish. Identify the critical stages, inputs, outputs, and touchpoints.
  • Focus on the Critical – For each process, identify the critical points that have the most impact on your objectives. These are the areas where you should measure performance through KPIs.
  • Quantify and Qualify – Determine both quantitative and qualitative aspects you want to measure. For instance, if you’re focusing on customer service, you might consider response time (quantitative) and customer satisfaction ratings (qualitative).
  • Align with Strategy – Ensure that your selected KPIs align with your overall business strategy. KPIs should reflect the strategic priorities of your organization.
  • Avoid Overload – While it might be tempting to measure everything, avoid overwhelming yourself with too many KPIs. Focus on a manageable number that truly reflects your objectives.
  • Data Availability – Ensure that you have access to the data needed to calculate the KPIs. If the data isn’t available or reliable, the KPI won’t be effective.
  • Review and Refine – Regularly review your chosen KPIs to ensure they’re still relevant and aligned with your goals. As your business evolves, you might need to refine your KPIs.

What’s the Difference Between KPIs and Metrics?

KPIs and metrics are both used to measure and assess performance in various aspects of a business, but they have distinct differences in terms of their purpose, significance, and usage. Here’s how they differ:

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs):

  • Strategic Focus – KPIs are specific, strategic metrics that are chosen to measure the most critical aspects of an organization’s performance directly tied to its objectives and goals.
  • Focus on Key Objectives – KPIs are carefully selected to reflect the organization’s high-level objectives and provide insights into its overall health and success.
  • Limited in Number – KPIs are typically a smaller set of metrics that offer a comprehensive view of performance. They serve as a dashboard for tracking progress toward key goals.
  • Actionable Insights – KPIs go beyond providing data; they offer actionable insights that guide decision-making and prompt action to improve performance.
  • Measurable Progress –KPIs often have targets and benchmarks associated with them, making it easier to track progress and assess whether the organization is meeting its strategic goals.
  • Regular Review – KPIs are regularly reviewed and discussed at executive and managerial levels, influencing strategic decisions and resource allocation.


  • Operational Focus – Metrics are more general measurements that provide information about specific processes, activities, or performance indicators within a business.
  • Wider Scope – Metrics can cover a broad range of data points, often encompassing operational details that might not directly tie into high-level strategic objectives.
  • Varied in Number – Metrics can be numerous and diverse, as they cover various aspects of business operations and can be relevant to different departments or teams.
  • Informative Data – Metrics provide data and information without necessarily offering a direct indication of strategic success or alignment with top-level goals.
  • Operational Analysis – Metrics are often used for operational analysis, providing insights into how individual processes or activities are functioning.
  • Departmental Focus – Metrics are frequently used at the departmental or functional level to track progress, identify areas for improvement, and make operational adjustments.

In summary, KPIs are a subset of metrics that have a strategic focus, guiding the organization’s high-level goals and decision-making. Metrics, on the other hand, are broader measurements that provide operational insights and data about various aspects of a business. While KPIs are used to assess whether strategic objectives are being met, metrics offer a more granular view of operational performance.

How Do You Measure KPIs?

Measuring KPIs involves a series of steps. First, you need to clearly define the specific KPIs that align with your objectives and business goals. These KPIs should be well-crafted and directly related to the aspects of performance you want to measure. Once you’ve defined your KPIs, the next step is to collect the necessary data. This data might come from various sources, such as sales reports, customer feedback, or operational metrics. Ensuring the accuracy and completeness of this data is essential for accurate KPI measurement.

With data in hand, you’ll want to set a baseline for each KPI. This baseline provides a starting point for comparison and helps you understand the current state of performance. Additionally, setting target values for each KPI gives you something to aim for and helps determine what level of performance is considered successful. Calculation of KPIs involves using the appropriate formulas based on the data you’ve collected. These formulas should directly reflect the definitions and criteria you established for each KPI. Utilizing software or tools can streamline this process and reduce the risk of calculation errors.

Regular monitoring of your KPIs is crucial. This might involve daily, weekly, monthly, or quarterly checks, depending on the nature of your business and objectives. Comparing the calculated KPI values with the set targets provides insights into whether you’re on track to meet your goals. Analyzing trends in KPIs over time helps you identify patterns and shifts in performance. Are your KPIs improving, staying constant, or declining? This analysis can lead to insights into what’s driving these changes.

Lastly, KPI measurement is a cyclical process. The insights and actions you take based on KPI data should feed back into your strategies, creating a continuous loop of improvement. By constantly refining your approaches, you’re more likely to achieve sustained success.

What’s a good KPI?

A good KPI is one that effectively measures a specific aspect of your business’s performance and provides meaning. Here are the characteristics of a good KPI:

  • Relevance
  • Measurability
  • Specificity
  • Actionability
  • Timeliness
  • Achievability
  • Measurable Improvement

What Are the Common Pitfalls to Avoid with KPIs?

Here are common mistakes you should avoid when working with key performance indicators:

  • Vanity Metrics – Choosing KPIs that look impressive but don’t provide meaningful insights or align with business goals.
  • Too Many KPIs – Overloading with KPIs can lead to confusion and a lack of focus on what truly matters.
  • Lack of Alignment – KPIs should directly align with your business objectives and strategy.
  • Unrealistic Targets – Setting KPI targets that are too ambitious or unattainable can demotivate teams.
  • Ignoring Trends – Failing to analyze trends over time can result in missing important insights.
  • Data Quality Issues – Relying on inaccurate or incomplete data can lead to incorrect conclusions.
  • Not Adapting – KPIs should evolve with changing business goals and market conditions.
  • Short-Term Focus – Overemphasizing short-term KPIs at the expense of long-term goals.
  • Ignoring Leading Indicators – Neglecting early indicators that could help prevent future problems.

Avoiding these pitfalls helps ensure that KPIs effectively guide decision-making, drive improvements, and contribute to overall business success.

Why is a time tracking important for KPI calculation?

A good part of these business KPIs includes a time category and an expense category, such as:

  • Time utilization
  • Billing rates based metrics
  • Project efficiency
  • Gross margin rate

Data is a crucial resource for developing modern intelligent solutions. Availability of large and diverse data sets through the innovative technology of our platform enables the users to receive customized information and proposals for managing a business. By tracking data on time as a crucial resource in the professional service business, you can uncover valuable indicators to help you make decisions. Time tracking usually allows you to allocate employee expenses per specific tasks and projects. Thus, only through time tracking you can have an insight into the performance of an individual employee, client, or project.

Time tracking tools don’t only help you calculate a specific KPI, but also to track development through time, receive metrics per the employee, department, etc.


Bojan Radojičić

Bojan Radojicic, Master Degree in Economics, is a financial performance consultant with more than 15 years of experience. He is responsible for adding value services based on innovative solutions.

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